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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-April 2016
Volume 4 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-27

Online since Tuesday, April 5, 2016

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Rapid prototyping: A future in orthodontics p. 1
Avinash Kumar, Hajra Ghafoor
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.167856  
Rapid prototyping (RP) is the name given to the host of related techniques that are used to fabricate the physical models based on computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. RP technology allows the building of a medical model layer by layer, reproducing almost every form of the external and internal anatomic structure. It has rapid speed, better design communication, and easy detection of flaws. Data for RP is obtained from the magnetic resonance image/computed tomography scan slice images and they are converted into digital image which in turn is transformed to standard triangulation language file and afterward layer by layer construction is done by different techniques such as stereolithography, fused deposit modeling, selective laser sintering and inkjet printing to form the physical model. The applications of this digital technology in orthodontics includes diagnosis and treatment planning, fabrication of orthodontic removable appliances, impression trays for indirect bonding, and surgical template for implant placement, prototype model is employed in various orthognathic surgeries, it has been used for the custom manufacture of lingual orthodontics appliances and also to produce a distractor during distraction osteogenesis. Its advantages include rapid fabrication, minimal time, easy handling, better visualization, reuse of design, and repeated verification, however, the clinical judgment still remains vital. This article reviews the use of RP in the field of orthodontics; it improves a valuable insight at the time of preoperative treatment planning and enhances the quality of treatment effect. There is a divergence in the applications of RP for an orthodontist, and the future looks more promising if we use it innovatively.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Evaluation of cervical spine posture after functional therapy with twin-block appliances p. 8
Cahide Aglarci
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.179739  
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the twin-block appliances to the cervical spine posture. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one skeletal Class II patients (11 female, 10 male; 13.31 ± 0.92) with mandibular retrusion were included in the study. Twin-block appliances with no expansion protocol were applied to all individuals. Cervical spine posture changes after treatment were evaluated by cephalograms. The differences between pre- and post-treatment measurements were evaluated by paired sample t-test. Results: No significant differences were observed after treatment, in the angle between the horizontal lines of the head (sella-nasion, anterior nasal spine-posterior nasal spine, and gonion and gnathion) and the upper and middle section of the spinal column (odontoid process tangent [OPT] and cerebral venous thrombosis [CVT]) (P > 0.05), while the increase of cervical curvature angle (OPT/CVT°) was found significant after the treatment (P = 0.009). Conclusion: A backward inclination of the middle segment of cervical column seems to be associated with the advancement of the mandible by twin-block treatment.
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Bond strength of aged lingual retainers p. 13
Sertac Aksakalli, Bayram Corekci, Celal Irgin, Bora Ozturk, Siddik Malkoc
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.172219  
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the tensile bond strength (TBS) of two different lingual retainer (LR) composite systems and three LR wires after they were aged by loadcycling and thermocycling. Materials and Methods: A 15 mm length of wire was bonded to the lingual surfaces of pairs of human incisors using two bonding techniques. Seventy-two pairs of incisors were placed into six groups, and loadcycling (50,000 times) and thermocycling (10,000 times) were performed. The failure characteristics examined included the maximum force for debonding and the site of failure. The adhesive remnant index scores were calculated. Data were compared by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey highly significant difference analysis. Results: All groups generally showed statistically significant differences in TBS score (P < 0.05). For each group, the highest average TBS score (P < 0.05) was obtained from a Transbond LR + Remalloy LR combination. The main failure type was a mixed failure. Conclusions: Retainer wire and composite combinations had significant differences. One of the best selection criteria for LRs is the determination of the bond strength needs of a case.
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Comparison of elemental composition and morphological characteristics of orthodontic titanium mini-implants p. 18
Safiya Sana, Avinash Kumar, Anna C Vaz
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.179740  
Objectives: To evaluate and compare the indigenous and imported titanium mini-implants for their elemental composition and morphological characteristics. Materials and Methods: Five indigenous titanium mini-implants of (SK Surgical, Pune, Maharashtra, India) and five imported titanium mini-implant samples (IMTEC Corp., Ardmore, OK, USA) having a length of 8 mm each was compared. Elemental analysis was done by energy dispersive spectroscopy. Morphological characteristics such as the external diameter, internal diameter, thread interval or pitch, cutting edge of the threads, the shape of the screw and length were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA to evaluate the differences in samples of the same group, and Student's t-test was used to compare the morphological characteristics between the two groups. Results: The elemental analysis showed that the indigenous mini-implants correspond to alpha-phase titanium alloy compared to imported mini-implants which correspond to alpha + beta phase titanium alloy. Statistical tests showed that the imported mini-implants were tapered compared to indigenous mini-implants which were straight or cylindrical in shape. There was a statistically significant difference in other morphological characteristics of mini-implants between the two groups as well. Conclusion: Indigenous mini-implants tested were made of titanium alloy (Ti-4Al) and imported mini-implants were made of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Significant mean differences were found in the morphological characteristics amongst the indigenous titanium mini-implants (F > 2.49).
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CASE REPORT Top

Reconstruction of orofacial injury due to a horse hoof kick: Report of a case p. 24
Mehmet Dalkiz, Fundagul Bilgic
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.172220  
We report the case of an orofacial injury caused by a horse kick. Animal attacks most commonly involve domestic animals, such as dogs, cats, bulls, camels, and horses. When an orofacial injury caused by a kick from a horse occurs, it is often serious, and may even be fatal. Children are the most common victims of horse kick injuries, generally being attacked by a horse they know. The patient was successfully treated via three stages of reconstruction: surgical, orthodontic, and prosthetic.
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