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REVIEW ARTICLES
Orthodontic intrusion: A contemporary review
Nabil M Al-Zubair
September-December 2014, 2(3):118-124
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.140625  
Orthodontic intrusion is a common treatment approach in managing orthodontic esthetic and functional problems, including gummy smile and deep bite. This review presents contemporary reports related to the intrusion, types of dental intrusion, clinical observations, and the tissue reactions after the application of intrusive force, as well as indications and contraindications for intrusion. This paper concisely describes the fixed and removable appliances used for intrusion accomplishment.
  13,876 2,611 -
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Considerations for the orthodontic treatment during pregnancy
Avesh Sachan, Vinay Kumar Verma, Sujit Panda, Karuna Singh
September-December 2013, 1(3):103-106
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.123321  
Pregnant women are advised against doing many things during their pregnancy, from taking certain types of medication, to eating some foods. However, there is no real reason why pregnant women should not have orthodontic treatment. For pregnant women orthodontic treatment is typically considered to be a safe, but with some precaution. Some local and systemic conditions limit the treatment modalities. There are some considerations for pregnant women to take into account. Sensitivity is often heightened during pregnancy and this may mean that braces seem a little more uncomfortable than usual; it is also worth bearing in mind that most painkillers are off-limits during pregnancy and hence patient will have to battle through any pain without taking medication. Hormonal changes in the body during pregnancy can increase the risk of swollen, sore gums and braces may irritate the gums. Hormonal changes and drugs can affect the orthodontic tooth movement. If patient have braces are pregnant and have concerns about their braces, it is important for patients to see their orthodontist on a regular basis during pregnancy.
  8,730 651 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Diagnosis and management of facial asymmetries
Sandhya Maheshwari, Sanjeev Kumar Verma, Aditi Gaur, Sushma Dhiman
May-August 2015, 3(2):81-87
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.149054  
Facial esthetics evaluation is the most important part of the orthodontic treatment-planning procedure. The attainment of the best facial esthetic appearance for a given patient is a primary goal of orthodontic treatment. The evaluation of a patient's frontal symmetry is the most critical aspect of diagnosis because this is most appreciated view for any individual. Even the most esthetic faces are associated with mild forms of facial asymmetry. The individuals who report for an orthodontic treatment are often associated with facial asymmetry that may be greater than the acceptable norms. Such asymmetries may have a skeletal or dental etiology. The diagnosis, treatment planning, and the mechanics for the asymmetric patient require the identification of the cause of the asymmetry. A careful differential diagnosis together with a thorough treatment plan can ensure successful treatment outcomes in the management of such cases.
  6,336 1,494 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Rapid prototyping: A future in orthodontics
Avinash Kumar, Hajra Ghafoor
January-April 2016, 4(1):1-7
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.167856  
Rapid prototyping (RP) is the name given to the host of related techniques that are used to fabricate the physical models based on computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. RP technology allows the building of a medical model layer by layer, reproducing almost every form of the external and internal anatomic structure. It has rapid speed, better design communication, and easy detection of flaws. Data for RP is obtained from the magnetic resonance image/computed tomography scan slice images and they are converted into digital image which in turn is transformed to standard triangulation language file and afterward layer by layer construction is done by different techniques such as stereolithography, fused deposit modeling, selective laser sintering and inkjet printing to form the physical model. The applications of this digital technology in orthodontics includes diagnosis and treatment planning, fabrication of orthodontic removable appliances, impression trays for indirect bonding, and surgical template for implant placement, prototype model is employed in various orthognathic surgeries, it has been used for the custom manufacture of lingual orthodontics appliances and also to produce a distractor during distraction osteogenesis. Its advantages include rapid fabrication, minimal time, easy handling, better visualization, reuse of design, and repeated verification, however, the clinical judgment still remains vital. This article reviews the use of RP in the field of orthodontics; it improves a valuable insight at the time of preoperative treatment planning and enhances the quality of treatment effect. There is a divergence in the applications of RP for an orthodontist, and the future looks more promising if we use it innovatively.
  4,259 2,586 1
CASE REPORTS
Treatment of Class III malocclusion in a young adult with reverse pull face mask
Zeeshan Iqbal Bhat, Jayesh S Rahalkar, Sonali Deshamukh, Charu Dutta Naik
January-April 2015, 3(1):70-75
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.147986  
Class III malocclusions are usually growth-related discrepancies, which often become more severe until growth is complete. This case report describes the treatment of a young girl aged 11 years 3 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion with a flattening of mid facial region. She also had constricted maxillary arch and high labially placed canine. The treatment plan included a slow palatal expansion, reverse pull facemask appliance, and fixed edgewise appliances. The treatment resulted in skeletal Class I and dental Class I molar and canine occlusion, an ideal overjet, overbite, incisor angulation and facial esthetics was greatly improved after 21 months of treatment. Stability of the treatment result was excellent in 1 year 5 months follow-up at the age of 14 years and 7 months.
  4,846 1,977 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of self-etching primer and erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser on bracket bond strength: An in-vitro study
Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale, Ketan K Vakil, Jeegar K Vakil
January-April 2015, 3(1):38-44
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.146355  
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength, the adhesive remnant scores and surface characteristics of the teeth prepared for bonding with erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) hard tissue laser, self-etching primer (SEP) and phosphoric acid etching. Materials and Methods: Seventy-eight human premolars, extracted for orthodontic purposes were randomly divided into three groups, enamel was irradiated with 37% phosphoric acid in Group-1, with SEP in Group-2 and with Er:YAG laser at 1.5-W in Group-3. After surface preparation standard edgewise stainless steel premolar brackets were bonded; one tooth in each group was not bonded and was examined under a scanning electron microscopic. The brackets were debonded 24 h later; shear bond strengths were measured, and adhesive remnant index scores were recorded. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between phosphoric acid etching, SEP, 1.5-W laser irradiation. Adhesive remnant scores were compared with the Chi-square test, and statistically significant differences were found between all groups. Conclusions: The mean shear bond strength obtained with 37% phosphoric acid etching, SEP and Er-YAG laser etching were clinically acceptable. SEP produces a more conservative etch pattern and more shear bond strength than phosphoric acid. More adhesive was left on the SEP treated enamel as compared to enamel treated with acid and laser etching.
  4,316 1,774 -
Assessment of anteroposterior and transverse first premolar extraction changes using palatal rugae and comparative analysis with lateral cephalogram in Angle's Class I and II patients: An institutional retrospective study
Supriya Nambiar, Subraya Mogra, Surendra Shetty, Siddarth Shetty
May-August 2013, 1(2):45-51
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.116284  
Introduction: The most common method of resolving substantial tooth size-arch length discrepancies (TSALD) is extraction of premolars followed by space closure that involves distal movement of anterior teeth, mesial movement of posterior teeth, or a combination of both. The palate is an important area to describe change during premolar extractions, especially the palatal rugae due to their supposed uniqueness and overall stability The aim of this study was to measure changes in the positions of the incisors and molars, relative to the palatal rugae, and the changes in arch width relative to the mid palatine raphe. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective study of 90 treated cases, 30 cases each of three different types of malocclusion from the Department of Orthodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, and Manipal University. Measurements from the dental study models were compared to the values obtained from the lateral cephalograms after digitizing with View box software. Arch width changes were also assessed. Conclusion: First premolar extraction spaces were used up approximately 50% by anterior retraction and buccal segment advancement, respectively. Retraction of teeth measured from the study models was comparable to that on the lateral cephalogram. So superimposition of progressive study models can be used to assess antero posterior tooth movements as with maxillary cephalometric superimpositions.
  5,310 526 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Esthetic orthodontic archwires: Literature review
Sertac Aksakalli, Siddik Malkoc
January-April 2013, 1(1):2-4
There is a growing request for esthetic orthodontic appliances and by the effect of this request, most of the companies produced new esthetic appliances. These new appliances combine both acceptable esthetics and adequate technical performance. Recently, coated metallic and fiber-reinforced wires have beenintroduced to solve esthetic appearance problem. In the literature, there are some studies mostly researching on mechanical, color, and roughness properties. They are clinically acceptable but so many properties must be studied and must be developed for better results.
  4,541 1,167 -
CASE REPORT
Periodontics and orthodontics team-work in the treatment of gingival recession: Two case reports
Arzu Alkan, Omer Cakmak, Ilhan Ramoglu, Gulsah Yagan, Banu Kiliç
September-December 2013, 1(3):107-112
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.123322  
In this report, we presented two cases in which orthodontic treatment played the role both in the etiology and treatment of gingival recession at mandibular anterior teeth. Subepithelial connective tissue graft was used in order to cover the exposed root surfaces. Residual recession after mucogingival periodontal surgery was further reduced by orthodontic intrusion of the incisors in both of the cases. The periodontics and orthodontics team-work satisfied both patients and the clinicians from the point of maintaining periodontal health, ideal occlusal relationships and masticatory function despite the prolonged treatment period.
  4,710 621 -
CASE REPORTS
Nonextraction management of the labially displaced canine
Zeeshan Iqbal Bhat, Charu Dutta Naik
May-August 2015, 3(2):141-145
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.150570  
Maxillary canine impaction is an anomaly often encountered in children. Although it has been reported that the incidence of palatally impacted canines is higher than that of labially impacted ones, it has been found that labial impaction of canines is more common than palatal impaction in Asian populations. Bringing the ectopic canine into a normal position is important for functional occlusion and the final esthetics of the orthodontic treatment. This article represents a nonextraction treatment approach for a labially displaced canine of a young boy, aged 12 years 6 months, with maxillary transverse discrepancy, labially placed maxillary canine, cross bite with UL3, UL4, UL5, midlines discrepancy, severe crowding in mandibular arch. The orthodontic treatment plan included slow palatal expansion followed by fixed orthodontics which guided the maxillary canine into the arch. This treatment strategy achieved optimal occlusion with improvements to the transverse, vertical, and sagittal relationships and achieved a harmonious smile.
  3,994 1,045 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The effect of isoflavones on early bone formation on orthopedically expanded suture in male rats
Faruk Izzet Ucar, Tancan Uysal, Abdullah Ekizer, Mehmet Fatih Sönmez
January-April 2013, 1(1):16-21
Objective: The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate histomorphometrically the effects of isoflavones on bone formation in response to expansion of the inter-premaxillary suture in male rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty male, 50-60 days old Wistar rats were divided into two equal groups (control and experimental). Both groups were subjected to expansion for 5 days, and 50 cN of force was applied to the maxillary incisors with helical spring. In experimental group, 10 μg/g isoflavones (IF) were administrated orally. After expansion period, the springs were removed and replaced with short lengths of rectangular retaining wire for retention period in 10 days. Bone formation in the sutural area was histomorphometrically evaluated including the amount of new bone formation (μm 2 ), number of osteoblasts, number of osteoclasts, and number of vessels. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for statistical evaluation at P < 0.05 level. Results: New bone formation area (P = 0.003; 2.26-fold) and number of osteoclasts (P = 0.001; 1.87-fold) showed statistically significant lower values in experimental group than the control. No significant differences were found in number of osteoblast and number of vessel values between the groups. Conclusion: Isoflavones affects bone formation in the orthopedically expanded inter-premaxillary suture negatively, and main affect of Isoflavones were on osteoclasts in bone metabolism.
  4,666 328 -
To establish the validity of dental age assessment using Nolla's method on comparing with skeletal age assessed by hand-wrist radiographs
Sachan Kiran, Vijay Prakash Sharma, Pradeep Tandon, Tripti Tikku, Snehlata Verma, Kamna Srivastava
January-April 2013, 1(1):11-15
Background: Skeletal age assessment by hand-wrist radiographs has been found to correlate significantly with the growth status of an individual, but has a known drawback in the form of extra-radiograph and high dose of radiation exposure in comparison to periapical X-rays used commonly in dentistry. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess skeletal age using hand-wrist radiographs and to find the correlation amongst the skeletal, dental, and chronological ages. Materials and Methods : Ninety Indian healthy children in the age group 9-13 years, comprising equal number of males and females, were included in the study. The children were radiographed for hand-wrist of the right hand and intraoral periapical X-ray for right permanent maxillary and mandibular canine. Results: There was high correlation between skeletal maturation indicator and canine calcification stages for both male and female children (0.635, 0.891). Conclusion: Females were more advanced in skeletal maturation than males. Chronological age showed inconsistent correlation with dental and skeletal ages. It was concluded that canine calcification stages can also be used for assessing skeletal maturity.
  4,057 719 -
CASE REPORTS
Orthodontic camouflage treatment in skeletal Class II patient
MB Raghuraj, Rajat Scindhia, Vivek Amin, Sandeep Shetty, Rohan Mascarenhas, Nandish Shetty
January-April 2015, 3(1):57-60
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.146354  
Orthodontic camouflage is a method of correcting malocclusion without involving the correction of skeletal problem. Planned extraction of some teeth will help us achieve favorable dental occlusion. The challenge lies in proper diagnosis and case selection so as to decide on dental camouflage as a treatment option in skeletal discrepancy cases. Case of Class II malocclusion with severe crowding, vertical growth pattern and Class II skeletal base with ANB 6° has been discussed. Treated with four premolar extractions and finished the case with Class I canine and molar relationship. Planned extraction of indicated teeth to bring about dental compensation and camouflage the underlying skeletal discrepancy gives an overall improvement in facial esthetics, occlusion and also satisfaction to the patient.
  4,104 613 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Diabetes mellitus, A Dilemma in Orthodontics
Syed Omar Aziz Rizvi, Vinod Pattabiraman, Sandesh Pai, Sharanya Sabrish
September-December 2014, 2(3):113-117
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.140620  
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. The prevalence of DM is growing rapidly worldwide and is reaching epidemic proportions. Traditionally, orthodontic treatment was considered to be a treatment modality for healthy young people. However, with increasing patient awareness the trend has changed with adults now seeking orthodontic treatment. Approximately, half of the patients with diabetes are undiagnosed and a dental examination may provide the first indication of the disease, and therefore a clinician must have a basic knowledge of the oral manifestations of DM. This article briefly deals with the medical aspects of DM, its oral manifestations and orthodontic treatment considerations.
  3,066 1,574 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Seventh key of occlusion: Diagnostic significance in different angle's class I, II and III malocclusions
Rajkumar Maurya, Ankur Gupta, Jaishree Garg, Harsh Ashok Mishra
September-December 2015, 3(3):188-191
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.155991  
Introduction: As significant tooth size discrepancies prevent an ideal occlusion being produced at the end of orthodontic treatment, absence of a tooth size discrepancy is the seventh "key" for an ideal occlusion. Present study aimed to assess diagnostic reliability of Bolton's ratio for different Angle's malocclusion. Materials and Methods: The study models of 144 patients were divided in three groups based on malocclusion.The mesiodistal tooth width from permanent first molar to first molar were measured on the orthodontic study models. The readings were obtained using a digital vernier caliper to the nearest 0.01mm, with the blades of the caliper held perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth. Results: ANOVA showed no significant difference between all groups except between anterior ratio of Class II group. The mean ratio for the Class III sample was significantly greater than Class I and Class II subjects (P < 0.05). The overall ratio was significantly larger for the Class III subjects than other groups, but with no significance for either gender. Regarding absolute values, mean overall ratio for the different groups was in the order Class III > Class I > Class II with significant difference between the Class I and Class II groups. Conclusion: Subjects with Class III group had a significantly greater prevalence of tooth size discrepancies than Class I and Class II group. Statistically significant difference was seen in the anterior ratio between the males and females of Class II malocclusion and no significant difference between other groups.
  4,151 408 -
Incidental findings in the maxillofacial region identified on cone-beam computed tomography scans
Stephen Rheem, Ib Leth Nielsen, Snehlata Oberoi
January-April 2013, 1(1):33-39
Background: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a three-dimensional radiographic imaging technique that is commonly being used in diagnosis and treatment planning in various fields of dentistry. Incidental findings on CBCT images are frequently reported in the literature and are important to assess before treatment planning. Aims: To record types and prevalence of incidental findings in the maxillofacial region, identified on CBCT scans and described in radiologist's consultation reports. Settings and Design: A total of 147 CBCT scan reports on 59 males and 88 females between June 2007 and February 2012 at University of California, San Francisco, were analyzed retrospectively. Methods and Material: 147 patient reports by Board certified oral radiologists on CBCT scans taken with the Hitachi CB MercuRay. The incidental findings were categorized and analysed using descriptive statistics. Statistical Analysis Used: Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the rate of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathologies between females and males. Results: The overall rate of incidental findings was 40.1%. The age range of patients was from 8 years to 80 years. The highest rate of incidental findings was in the sinus region (51.7%), followed by dento-alveolar region (34.01%), TMJ region (26.53%), osseous region (15.64%), calcification of ligaments, pineal gland, and carotid artery (12.92%), dental anomalies (10.88%), nasal region (8.84%), and airway region (5.44%). According to logistic regression analysis, females were 2.58 times more likely to exhibit TMJ pathology compared to males (P value = 0.02). Conclusions: CBCT scans are beneficial in revealing incidental abnormalities in the head and neck region outside the scope of interest. Careful review of the entire CBCT image is essential to avoid under- or overestimation of potential complications in providing comprehensive health care.
  4,036 498 -
CASE REPORTS
Piezocision-assisted canine distalization
Ozlem Aylikci, Caglar Sakin
May-August 2013, 1(2):70-76
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.116288  
An increasing number of adult patients are seeking orthodontic treatment to improve their smile or their masticatory function. One of the biggest challenges an adult orthodontic patient faces is the time spent wearing brackets because time and esthetics have become increasingly important in this time. Over the years, several surgical techniques have been developed to address this issue and reduce overall treatment time. Although very effective, these techniques have proven to be quite invasive. A new, minimally invasive surgical procedure [piezocision] is presented in this case report that combines microincisions and localized piezoelectric surgery to achieve similar results rapidly and with minimal trauma.
  3,386 858 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Ergonomics, posture and exercises - Painfree, prolong orthodontic career
Avesh Sachan, Vinay Kumar Verma, Sujit Panda, Karuna Singh
September-December 2013, 1(3):89-94
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.123318  
Orthodontists are exposed to several occupational hazards. Back and neck pain arising due to improper posture is very common in this community. The nature of work entails abnormal flexion of the lumber spine and subsequent loading on the inter-vertebral disks or extra tension in the spinous ligaments causing musculoskeletal disorders. Neck and shoulder, lower back, hand and wrist are the most commonly involved regions. Obtain an accurate diagnosis from a qualified healthcare provider. Early intervention is the key. Treatment may range from pain relief medications and rest to surgery and ergonomic interventions at work place and home. The current paper discusses etiology of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) preventive measures which can be incorporated to ensure a trouble free professional career.
  3,553 589 -
Skeletal maturity indicators
Suchita Madhukar Tarvade (Daokar), Sheetal Ramkrishna
September-December 2015, 3(3):158-161
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.150584  
Growth biologically and histologically is a composite of morphogenetic and histogenetic changes occurring continuously over a period in response to genetic coding and environmental influence. It is one of the most myriad variations and plays an important role in the etiology of malocclusion and also in the evaluation of diagnosis, treatment planning retention and stability of any case. In this review, various methods currently used as skeletal maturity indicators have been discussed.
  3,018 937 -
Timing of orthodontic treatment
Mahesh Jain, Nidhi Dhakar
September-December 2013, 1(3):99-102
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.123320  
General dental practitioners are the first to examine and screen children for developing malocclusions and hence they are most responsible for correct diagnosis and referral. They are often faced with the dilemma of deciding at what age to refer for a further opinion and treatment. This entirely depends on the problem that has been diagnosed and the dental state of the child, but there is always a question that is there an "ideal" time for orthodontic treatment, if the clinician wants to maximize the benefits of growth and development without subjecting every child to fixed mechanotherapy for years. The controversy surrounding early versus late orthodontic treatment is often frustrating and confusing to the dental fraternity. This article looks into both sides of the issue for orthodontic treatment of Class II and III malocclusions along with the problems in the transverse dimension and vertical dimension. Early orthodontic treatment is effective and desirable in specific situations. However, the evidence in the form of Randomized Control Treatment is equally compelling that such an approach is not indicated in many cases for which later, one-phase treatment is more effective and efficient. Therefore, dental practitioners must decide on the basis of their experience and clinical judgment when to advise orthodontic treatment. For many patients, delaying the treatment may be advisable to obtain advantage from dental and skeletal development.
  3,098 752 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Relative comparison and assessment of patient's attitude and discomfort between two different types of fixed functional appliances: A comprehensive survey
Pooja Gandhi, Meenu Goel, Puneet Batra
September-December 2013, 1(3):83-88
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.123317  
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the patient's attitude and follow the progress of patient's adaptation to discomfort between two types of fixed functional appliances. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 patients undergoing treatment with either fixed functional appliance, i.e., forsus fatigue resistant device (FFRD) (hybrid) and mandibular protraction appliance (MPA) IV (rigid) rated their experiences during the 1 st day of treatment and after 7 days, 14 days and 30 days of appliance insertion. Results: There were no significant differences in patient's attitude toward both the appliances. Soft-tissue laceration was the most serious side-effect (about 50% in MPA IV and 25% in FFRD). Soft-tissue laceration and other negative effects generally decreased over time. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that there is no considerable difference in acceptance of FFRD and MPA IV by the patients. Most patients experience some discomfort and functional limitations; however, the effect generally diminishes with time and patients adapt to the appliance.
  1,934 1,721 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessment of skeletal maturity using the permanent mandibular canine calcification stages
Sandeep Goyal, Sonia Goyal, Neeraj Gugnani
January-April 2014, 2(1):11-16
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.125916  
Aim: The aim of this study is to assess, (1) the relationship between cervical vertebrae maturation and mandibular canine calcification stages; and (2) whether the mandibular canine calcification stages can be used as indicators to determine skeletal maturity. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, retrospective, and cross-sectional study was designed. A null hypothesis was proposed that there was no relationship between cervical vertebrae maturation and the mandibular canine calcification stages. Pre-treatment orthopantomograms (OPGs) and lateral cephalograms of 99 males and 110 females of Rwanda ethnicity were selected. The cervical vertebrae maturation index (CVMI) proposed by Hassel and Farman was used to evaluate the skeletal maturation level, and the mandibular canine calcification stages were assessed with the Demirjian Index (DI). Results: A significant association was found between the CVMI and DI stages, as evaluated by the Pearson contingency coefficient values (0.599 for males and 0.719 for females). Canine stage F in males and canine stage E in females could represent the CVMI 2 stage and indicate the onset of a period of accelerating growth. Conclusions: The mandibular canine calcification stages might be clinically used as maturity indicators of the pubertal growth period, but only during the onset and accelerating phases.
  3,053 540 1
CASE REPORTS
Mini-screw supported molar distalization: A new method
Ahmet Arif Celebi
September-December 2015, 3(3):199-203
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.158138  
The aim of this report was to present the results of most effective intraoral upper molar distalization system supported with mini-screw. The mini-screws with a 2.0 mm diameter and 8 mm length were used for intra-osseous anchorage. The screws were placed right and left buccal side of the maxilla. Nickel-titanium (NiTi) coil springs were set bilaterally on a 0.016 inch diameter NiTi archwire between the first molar tubes and the first premolar braces. The first premolars were ligated to the mini-screw to provide anchorage. Other mini-screws with a 2.0 mm diameter and 10 mm length were placed right and left palatal side. A spring consisted of a 0.017 × 0.025 inch beta-titanium-alloy wire situated palatally. The activated wire was inserted among the first molar palatal sheath and the mini-screw. Distalization of the upper molars was achieved in average 5 months. According to the results, the maxillary first molars showed mean 4 mm distal movement and 4° distal tipping.
  2,932 631 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of facial asymmetry in esthetically pleasing faces
Yagnesh Rajpara, Tarulatha R Shyagali, Kalyani Trivedi, Prabhuraj Kambalyal, Tapan Sha, Varun Jain
May-August 2014, 2(2):79-84
DOI:10.4103/2321-3825.131118  
Aims: The aim of the following study is to assess the extent of facial skeletal symmetry or asymmetry in individuals who had no visible facial asymmetry. Materials and Methods: Posterior-anterior cephalographs of 50 esthetically pleasing faces were taken and traced for the Grummon's facial asymmetry analysis. Parameters such as the horizontal planes, mandibular morphology, mandibular deviation and the transverse asymmetry were measured. To find the difference between different parameters Student's t-test was performed. Results: There existed a significant difference between the mandibular morphology measurements such as condylar-gonion distance, gonion-menton distance and the condylar-menton distance. Moreover the mandible showed the left side deviation. There was highly significant correlation between the zygomatic arch and the measurements like nasal cavity distance, condylar distance and the jugular process distance to the mid-sagittal plane. Conclusion: Skeletal asymmetries are a common finding even in individuals who have normal facial features. Right sided dominance of the mandible was more and there was also tendency for the craniocaudal increase in the rate of the asymmetry.
  3,007 532 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Techniques to measure miniscrew implant stability
Çaglar Sakin, Özlem Aylikci
January-April 2013, 1(1):5-10
The use of miniscrews for anchorage control during orthodontic treatment has the potential to improve the treatment of certain types of malocclusions. However, miniscrew failures will greatly influence the efficiency and efficacy of treatment. Having a better understanding of the healing process that occurs around miniscrew implants will provide valuable information that could enhance the predictability of their use. There are several methods to evaluate the stability. These fall into two main groups, which are invasive techniques and non-invasive techniques. The non-invasive measurement technique, resonance frequency analysis, holds great promise for the clinical evaluation of miniscrew implant stability. It may be used to evaluate the transition from primary to secondary stability, producing a better understanding of the time periods that are high risk for screw failure. The technique also provides a method to determine the effect that a modification of the placement protocol of miniscrew implants might have on the transition from primary to secondary stability. On that basis, this review will cover the methods to evaluate miniscrew implant stability longitudinally, both in vitro and in vivo.
  2,767 680 -
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